Pyninus (Poenenus) is a Celtic god worshipped in Gaul, at the Great St. Bernard Pass. He was a mountain god, a patron and protector of travelers. .

He was sometimes identified by the Romans with their god Jupiter by way of the interpretatio romana.


Pyninus received votive and dedicatory offerings from his worshippers; otherwise little is known of the specifics of his cult.

The origin of Pyninus’ name is uncertain; it is likely derived from the same source as the Gaulish *penno or “mountain.”

Pyninus was worshipped in the Alpine region of Gaul in what is now northern Italy, in what is now called the Great St. Bernard Pass beneath what was once known as the Peak of Pyninus.

Literary evidence
The Roman authors Livy and Servius identified Pyninus’ worship in Cisalpine Gaul; Servius specifically mentions the god’s presence at the Great St. Bernard Pass in what is now Italy.

Archaeological evidence
Great St. Bernard Pass, Italy; Val d’Aoste, Italy

Toponymic evidence
The Romans referred to the St. Bernard Pass itself as poeninus.