Verbeia is a Celtic goddess worshipped in Britain. She may have been a river goddess, possibly associated with the nearby Wharfe; she may also have been connected with cattle and the prosperity associated with those beasts.

An image of a goddess holding a snake in each hand has been found in the region; the image can’t be definitively linked to Verbeia, but if it represents her it could suggest a number of different possible associations–the snake can be a symbol of healing, fertility, or the underworld, among other things.


Verbeia received votive and dedicatory offerings from her worshippers; otherwise little is known of the specifics of her cult.

The origin of Verbeia’s name is uncertain. One possibility is that it comes from the Proto-Celtic *erba or “cow,” which could connect her with other Celtic cow deities such as the Irish Boann (whose name likely derives from the Proto-Celtic *bous, another word for “cow”). Another is that it may have been derived from the Proto-Celtic *wera- or “rain.”

Verbeia is known from a single inscription discovered at Ilkley near the river Wharfe in England.

Literary evidence

Archaeological evidence
Ilkley, England